Sunday, March 6, 2016

Extensive Reading Week#1


What is Extensive Reading?

Extensive Reading (ER) is an approach to second language reading. When learners read extensively, they read very easy, enjoyable books to build their reading speed and fluency. Another way to say this is students learn to read by actually reading rather than examining texts by studying the vocabulary, grammar and phrases. It is instructive to compare Intensive Reading (IR) with Extensive Reading.

Intensive Reading

For many teachers, there is only one way to teach reading which involves the teacher walking the whole class through a reading passage. The passage is usually short and the instruction is focused on carefully checking comprehension, studying the grammar and/or vocabulary, or developing a reading skill.   

The benefits of Extensive Reading

Extensive Reading gives students chances to read longer pieces of reading, which they choose, which they can read at their own speed and at their own ability level. This can be done with Graded readers.
Intensive Reading and Extensive Reading are complementary and teachers should use both. A balanced reading program uses Intensive Reading to introduce new language, and complements this with Extensive Reading which consolidates and raises awareness of this language leading to reading fluency.

Characteristics of an Extensive Reading program:
  1. The Reading Materials is easy.
       Easy books build speed > Speed builds fluency. >  Fluency builds understanding.
  2. There’s a wide variety of material on a wide variety of topics.
      We read different things in different ways, or different reasons.
  3. Learners choose what they want to read.
    Interest leads to understanding… and to more reading
  4. Learners read as much as possible.
    Probably in class.  Definitely outside of class.
  5. The purpose is usually pleasure, information, and general understanding
    (Just like in real life)
  6. Reading is its own reward.
    We are teaching the ‘joy of reading’.  It's not about the test.
  7. Reading speed is fast.  The need for speed = fluency
  8. Reading is individual and silent.
    Most reading, in and out of class, is on one’s own and silent
  9. Teachers guide their students.
    ER is different from what learners have experienced before. We need to show them how and why.
  10. The teacher is a role model.  “Reading is caught, not taught”.

10 Principles of Extensive Reading
 강좌의 운영방법 : 다독(Extensive Reading)은 많은 양의 독서와 외국어 학습자의 언어능력을 향상시키는 또 다른 활동을 통하여 외국어를 배우는 방법이다.
이 수업의 특징.
 1. 학생들은 수업시간에서 뿐만 아니라, 특히 수업시간 이외에 가능한 많은 책을 읽어야 한다.
 2. 여러 가지 다양한 방법을 사용함으로써 학생들이 책 읽는 것에 흥미를 가지도록 한다.
 3. 학생들은 자기가 읽고 싶은 책을 읽고, 재 미가 없는 책은  읽지 않아도 된다.
 4. 이 강좌의 목적은 책읽기를 통하여 즐거워야 하며, 책을 통해서 많은 지식을 얻고, 이해력을 기르는 것이다.
 5. 책을 많이 읽는 것만으로 충분하다.
 6. 학생들의 문법이나 단어수준을 넘어서는 책이 없기 때문에 책 읽는 동안 사전은 거의 필요가 없을 것이다.
 7. 책읽기는 개인적인 활동이다. 언제나 어디서나 학생들이 원할 때 책을 읽을 수가 있다.
 8. 이해하기 쉬운 책을 읽을 때 책 읽는 속도는 빨라진다.
 9. 선생님들 은 이 강좌의 목적과 수업방법에 대해 설명하고, 학생들이 무슨 책을 읽는지 알아야 하며, 학생들이 수업에 잘 참여하도록 이끌어 간다.
 10. 선생님 은 책읽는 학생의 본보기이기 때문에, 진정한 책읽는 것이 무엇인지 설명해줘야 한다.

Extensive Reading Forms

Finding an appropriate level / Choosing your first book

There are a variety of assessment tools for determining someone's appropriate reading level
 The Edinburgh Project on Extensive Reading (EPER) test is a popular written test   Because of copyright issues, it cannot be linked to online. Below are some online tools for determing reading levels.
This can also be accomplished pretty well using a page-flipping previewing activity described below. 

It is important for students to be able to assess a book quickly so they can choose a book they want to read. The previewing exercise is done as follows:

  • The teacher selects a pile of graded readers (more than he has students in the class).
  • The teacher chooses books of several different genres: mystery, romance, historical fiction and so on.
  • The teacher chooses books he thinks will be an unknown story to his students.
  • The teacher models doing a preview focusing on;
  • looking at the books cover
  • reading the back matter
  • looking at the chapter index
  • flicking through the book noticing any pictures
  • checking for a glossary
  • noticing the genre of the book
  • authors name
  • The teacher must stress the most important thing is to decide if you would want to read the book or not.
  • Students then receive a book from the teacher to preview.
After students preview the book they then are given 1-2 minutes to discuss the book in pairs.
This is repeated two or three times.

Timed Repeated Reading  for building fluency by accumulating more sight vocabulary (words that the brain recognizes instantly; words that do not take any time to process.
Students choose any reader (or any other kind of text) that they have ALREADY read. Something they are familiar with.  For example, the first page of the book they are presently reading.
Give them a TRR CHART to fill in the date, title, and level. They will read for one minute as timed by the teacher. The students will read for one minute, count the number of words they read, then record it on their chart. The teacher has them go back to the beginning and do it AGAIN for one minute. Record the new count. The teacher has them read ONCE MORE for one minute and record their totals. Almost certainly everyone will notice a gain..

Do this TRR at least once per week, if not once per class, for the entire semester. Students will be very pleased at the appearance of improvement. They actually will be more fluent readers.
The eyes can travel a page much faster than a pencil can and when a person pronounces the words they read, they can only read as fast as they can talk (about 200 words per minute, no faster).

 Oral Reading

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